Oh, What a Bloody War: Amputations and the Advent of the Prosthesis Industry during the American Civil War.

“At an age when appearances are reality, it becomes important to provide the cripple with a limb which shall be presentable in polite society, where misfortunes of a certain obtrusiveness may be pitied, but are never tolerated under the chandeliers.” Oliver Wendell Holmes in 1863.


Veterans John J. Long, Walter H. French, E. P. Robinson, and an unidentified companion, 1860s Courtesy Library of Congress

The Civil War was one of the bloodiest engagements in American history, with approximately 620,000 soldiers dying from combat, accident, starvation, and disease. Some studies even put the number as high as 850,000. Nearly 500,000 men were injured in the conflict, many later dying from medical procedures that were meant to save their lives. One such procedure undertaken with shocking frequency was the amputation of limbs, which accounted for approximately three-quarters of the surgeries performed during the war.

One of the key reasons for the upsurge in amputations was the advancements in military weaponry at the time. Prior this period in history, the rifles used in fighting were predominantly smoothbore. It wasn’t until the 1830s that a man named Captain John Norton observed how a certain tribe in India used a softer wood for the lower part of their blowguns, allowing greater range of fire because the wood compacted around the projectile. Based on this concept, he designed a cylindrical bullet with a flat base, that trapped the gasses behind it. The idea was later improved upon by a man named William Greener. However, the true bane of Civil War soldiers was created by Claude-Étienne Minié and Henri-Gustave Delvigne in 1849.


Minie Ball

Commonly known as the minié (min-YAY or Minnie) ball, this conical projectile was smaller, longer, and easier to load. When coupled with the new grooved barrels of the rifles Minié and Delvigne designed, it was deadly. It made its way to the United States after being observed in use by several American officers in the Crimean War from 1853 to 1855, most notably by General George B. McClellan. James Burton, an armorer in Harpersferry, Virginia improved upon the design (again), and a form of the minié ball was adopted by both sides of the American Civil War—Union and Confederate.

To begin with, smoothbore muskets were still the weapon of choice for battle, but as the war raged on, rifled muskets soon replaced smoothbore, with the industrialized North being able to produce these weapons at an alarming rate. They outshot their earlier cousins by approximately 200 yards, and with deadly accuracy.

What made the minié ball so devastating was how it compacted and then expanded upon hitting a target. Where a round ball would break bone and damage tissue, a minié ball tore violently through arteries and skin, shattering bone underneath, often leading to the injured soldier requiring amputation of the affected limb. If the soldier was shot in the main part of his body or his head, he wasn’t expected to survive.

A medical textbook published a decade after the Civil War, A System of Surgery by William Todd Helmuth, went into detail about the damage caused by the minié ball:

“The effects are truly terrible; bones are ground almost to powder, muscles, ligaments, and tendons torn away, and the parts otherwise so mutilated, that loss of life, certainly of limb, is almost an inevitable consequence.

None but those who have had occasion to witness the effects produced upon the body by these missiles, projected from the appropriate gun, can have any idea of the horrible laceration that ensues. The wound is often from four to eight times as large as the diameter of the base of the ball, and the laceration so terrible that mortification [gangrene] almost inevitably results.”


A surgeon’s kit from the American Civil War

Amputations often took place in battlefield tents, fear of infection prompting the procedure. The doctors on either side were ill-prepared for such surgeries, however medical texts at the time do document how to perform amputations. The conditions were far from ideal for such a drastic medical procedure. The patients would lay on planks or removed doors, given chloroform or whiskey. Hollywood has been known to exaggerate these procedures, showing men screaming in agony, but the use of pain medication was widespread. Limbs, hands, and feet were removed by cutting in a circular motion, surprisingly resulting in little blood loss. Some surgeons even cut flaps of skin to create a covering for the wound, stitching them together after the injured limb was removed. A good surgeon could amputate a limb in ten minutes. Surgical tools were often unwashed between patients, leading to the spread of infection and subsequent death of many soldiers after the amputation. Many soldiers begged not to have the doctors remove limbs, leading to the nickname of ‘Butcher’ for many of the surgeons at the time.

If a patient managed to survive the operation—mortality rate for a primary amputation was around forty-eight percent—he would be left with questions about his future: how would make a living, continue his hobbies, or even marry? To many people in the late nineteenth century, amputation was also sign of character, where the general populous would assume the subject had been morally degenerate or involved in a physical altercation. Approximately 30,000 Union soldiers lost limbs during the war, with just about 21,000 surviving the procedure. Confederate records are unknown, as when the government fled Richmond at Grant’s Army advancing, they burned all paperwork, but it is estimated the number of amputees was approximately 40,000.

A demand was launched for ways to help the returning soldiers regain some normality—and comfort—and the great race was on to design the best prosthesis. Prosthetic limbs have been around since the Egyptians and Romans, with the earliest example of a prosthesis being a big toe, found in the tomb of a noblewoman. As with most things, though, the need for prosthetics usually circled around war. Between the 1500s and 1800s, there were not many advances in the area, with many of the limbs similar to things that were used during Roman times. In the early sixteenth century, Ambroise Paré, a doctor in France, came up with a locking knee joint and a hinged prosthetic hand. However, his ways of attaching these limbs are still commonly used to this day. Needless to say, there wasn’t much going on in the way of technological advancements when it came to prosthetics for nearly 300 years.

With the vast number of amputees, the government made a vow to provide assistance, unveiling ‘the Great Civil War benefaction,’ a commitment to provide prosthetics to all disabled war veterans. With the lure of government aid, many entrepreneurs took to the challenge of creating something physically appealing and functional. However, with the most common supplies being wood and steel, comfort—despite the claims of the manufacturers—was a great issue, and many soldiers preferred continuing to use crutches, or pin up the sleeves of their coats.


James Edward Hanger

Interestingly, it was a Confederate amputee, James Edward Hanger, who made the greatest stride in developing a prosthesis. Fed up with the peg given to him by Union surgeons after the amputation of his leg, Hanger developed a substitute leg with a flexible knee and ankle joint, allowing for greater range of movement. He was awarded several patents by the Confederate government at the time, and later, in 1891, awarded a US patent for his design. The company he founded is still active today, providing prosthetics and orthotics to many disabled peoples and veterans.

Unfortunately, prosthetics were not the solution for all amputees. Soldiers who had their arms removed often were faced with clunky appliances that did not lend themselves well to daily life. Often, they opted to learn to use their non-amputated arm, or in the case of double amputees, learn other ways to get on with their day-to-day living. Some struggled with learning to walk with their new legs, thinking they would be able to jump up straight away. One soldier described it as if he was a baby, walking for the first time.

The United States government created a stipend programs to make sure all veterans could afford to buy a prosthetic limb. In 1862, the Federal government allotted Union veterans $75 to buy an artificial leg and $50 to buy an artificial arm. By 1864, the Confederacy was also allocating funds for their injured veterans. However, some of the soldiers refused to take the charity, believing their amputated limbs were marks of bravery in a hard-fought battle.

In addition to funding for artificial limbs, the government looked for ways to employ injured soldiers, creating the invalid corps where the men could work as cooks, nurses, and prison guards. Those with less grievous injuries were sent back to the front. Unfortunately, these men were the subject of much mockery, being dubbed the ‘cripple brigade’ and unable to claim the reenlistment bonus given to men serving their second time with the military forces or the bonus afforded to new recruits. Eventually, the unit was renamed to the Veteran Reserve Corps to avoid further mockery.

War in any context is a horrific event. Eventually, the call for the minié ball along with other soft lead bullets to be banned was made in 1870s, stating that it was comparable to an exploding bullet. Still, the technology advanced, rendering muzzle loading weapons obsolete as manufacturers progressed to breach loading weapons, which could be reloaded much faster than their earlier cousins. However, the rifled barrel and conical bullet changed the face of warfare forever. Yet, today, we can grateful to men like Hanger for his advances made in artificial legs, as his initial designs were the model for many prosthetics to follow.

As Harvard historian Catherine Drew Gilpin Faust said, “The American Civil War produced carnage that has often been thought reserved for the combination of technological proficiency and inhumanity characteristic of a later time.” And still, the advances made during the time, thanks to the need to help disabled soldiers, could almost be described as monumental.

Still, it is a fair question to ask if the minié ball, with its unique shape and ability to maim and kill from a greater distance and with greater accuracy than its predecessors, had not been invented, would there have been the need for the prosthesis industry to advance as it did during after the American Civil War? With more powerful weapons comes the need for new medical technology to keep up with the level of destruction and harm inflicted on the bodies of those fighting the battles. With this in mind, it is no wonder the American Civil War has been known as the deadliest conflict in the country’s history.

Consulted Sources:

After the Amputation: National Museum of Civil War Medicine. Retrieved from http://www.civilwarmed.org/prosthetics/

A History of Wartime Advancements in the Prosthetic Industry. Retrieved from https://history.libraries.wsu.edu/fall2016-unangst/2016/12/16/a-history-of-wartime-advancements-in-the-prosthetic-industry/

Minié Ball: HistoryNet. Retrieved from http://www.historynet.com/minie-ball

Statistics on the Civil War and Medicine. Retrieved from https://ehistory.osu.edu/exhibitions/cwsurgeon/cwsurgeon/statistics

The History of Prosthetics. Retrieved from http://unyq.com/the-history-of-prosthetics/

Wegner, Ansley Herring. Amputations in the Civil War. Tar Heel Junior Historian. Fall 2008. Retrieved from https://www.ncpedia.org/history/cw-1900/amputations

Check out Simple Blessings, the short story prequel to The Soldier’s Secret, available on Amazon via my books section!

Book Review: A Perfect Bride

a-perfect-bride-kindleTitle: A Perfect Bride

Author: Ginny Sterling


Orphaned as a child, feisty Colleen O’Mara is discovered by the Cherokee people and adopted as one of their own. She becomes a sister to the chief’s only daughter. Learning their ways, she teaches them her language in return. As the United States Army uproots them from their homes, she is fascinated with the dark-haired lieutenant that has come to her rescue as they are forced to make the treacherous journey to the Oklahoma Territory.

Lieutenant Daniel Williams is among the soldiers called up to enforce the removal of the Cherokee people from Georgia. It only took one glance into Colleen’s pale green eyes amidst the chaos to become fascinated with the so-called Indian maiden. Feeling guilty over what is happening to the Cherokee and his love for the enchanting young woman, he abandons everything he had once known in order to make things right for his perfect bride.

** Note: Each book in The Bride series is a standalone book, in a mini-series, and you can read them in any order


As many of my readers know, I do have a strict review protocol as it were when it comes to historical novels. I’m a huge proponent of research and keeping the reader in the period. As this is a topic of interest to me, I was excited to read A Perfect Bride by Ginny Sterling. The blurb and cover were quite captivating, well-written to draw the reader in with just enough tease. A lovely combination.

I was very pleased with the beginning of the novel. It was crafted beautifully, where the reader could feel the distress of the native tribe as they were forced to move, the heartbreak and the concern.

However, the latter half of the story fell short to me. There were a couple times I sat thinking, would this be a realistic depiction of what might happen? I know with historical romance, we are allowed some leeway in regards to how we interpret history, but it was simply too rushed. There were also some aspects that had me pulled from the story, namely a description of Little Fire (Colleen) smelling Daniel’s aftershave on a scarf after he had been on a trail with them for many weeks. While I do know aftershave existed in the time period, it threw me out of the story because it felt too modern.

However, despite these things, taking the book on a whole, it is a good representation of the genre and well-written with no grammatical or spelling errors. Therefore, I would recommend it for someone wanting a taste of the era with a HEA ending.

About the Author:

Ginny Sterling is an avid romance writer. She enjoys telling tales that tug at the heart. She enjoys reading and creating stories that leave the reader smiling, laughing or crying. She mostly writes Western Romances Books – including two new series: Brokken Road Romances and The Lawkeepers. She also writes Contemporary romance, as well as the Timeless Brides Series (Time travel romance).

Having lived in several different parts of the United States, she and her family have settled in Kentucky. She spends all of her free time writing, quilting, or shopping for coffee mugs to add to her collection.


If you want spicy romance, check out Gina Cole, her pen name that writes steamy Contemporary and Time Travel romances with a flair for the happily ever after. The Timeless Brides series is a fun, outlandish, group of sexy books that are designed to delight and surprise readers.

Find out more about Ginny Sterling at: http://www.ginnysterling.com

Christmas During the American Civil War

Christmas during the 1860s was not unlike the holidays we know and love. However, there was always the ever present damper over families, knowing their loved ones were away fighting in another state. I imagine this is much the same for soldiers nowadays, who will not be able to be with their families for Christmas.

Many of the traditions we have in place (trees, Santa, gifts) were commonplace in the homes, however, some Southern families had to make excuses that Santa might not get through the blockades surrounding Southern ports.


Christmas in Camp – Courtesy of the Civil War Trust

The soldiers made the best of the holidays, with one describing how they decorated a small tree with hard tack and salt pork, instead of cakes and oranges. Letters home were often sparse in the latter years of the war, but some soldiers made journal entries, wishing their families the best of the holidays.

In some camps, the Yankee soldiers received visits from President Lincoln, some even fortunate enough to be gifted a parcel from Tad Lincoln.

Many soldiers, as well as their families, sang carols. The names will be recognizable to us today– “Deck the Halls,” “Oh Come All Ye Faithful,” and Mendelssohn’s “Hark, the Herald Angels Sing” (1840), are still sung today. American musical contributions to the season include: “It Came Upon a Midnight Clear” (1850), “Jingle Bells” (1857), “We Three Kings of Orient Are” (1857) ,and “Up on the Housetop” (1860).

Christmas cards were not that common at the time, but would become more popular in the 1870s.

Regardless, it was often a sad time of year, as families never knew if their menfolk would be coming home.

Minolta DSC

A husband and wife separated by the war (Nast, 1862)

Simple blessings cover newCheck out my own post-Civil War Christmas short, Simple Blessings, and catch up with our very own Soldier’s Secret family!

Have a very happy holiday season!

Women’s History: The First Female FBI Agent

Much like my post on Female Soldiers During the American Civil War, I like to give a bit of historical background to the novels I write. Female FBI agents are very prevalent in the United States today, making up 19% of the bureau’s special agents. This left me curious. When did women first start working for this elite agency?

As a tie in to my novel, The Fairest of Them, I decided to delve into the history of the Federal Bureau of Investigations, a.k.a the FBI. According to their website, the FBI stemmed from a special group of law enforcement agents, founded during the presidency of Theodore Roosevelt. He teamed with Attorney General Charles Bonaparte in 1908 to lay the foundations to what would later become the FBI. In 1918, with the end of WWI, the group of Special Agents was renamed the “Bureau of Investigations.”


Alaska Packard Davidson

But this isn’t a history lesson on the formation of the FBI! I’m here to tell you about women in the FBI! The history on this subject is sparse, but one name I found was Alaska Packard Davidson. She served as a special agent from October 1922 to June 1924. She was 54 years old when she was appointed. When J. Edgar Hoover took over the Bureau, Davidson, along with several other female agents were dismissed.

Hoover is only known to have hired one female Special Agent during his entire term in office. That was Lenore Huston, an agent from 1924-1928.


Lenore Huston’s credentials

After, according to the FBI’s website:

On July 17, 1972, the first two women of the modern era entered the FBI Training Academy at Quantico, Virginia. Fourteen weeks later they emerged as special agents. Over the next 40 years, women agents reshaped the Bureau, achieving leadership posts across the U.S. and around the world. This series looks at their roles, their challenges, and the rewards of a demanding career as a G-woman.

A pretty big gap in history! You can learn more by going to: http://www.fbi.gov/news/stories/2012/may/women-agents_051612/women-agents_051612

The Fairest of ThemDon’t forget to look for The Fairest of Them, with my own Special Agent Rae Hatting.